1 The retractions came only a few months after BioMed Central.

In the aftermath of the latest scandals involving fake peer reviewers, many journals are determined to carefully turn off the reviewer-suggestion option on the manuscript-submission systems. But that move might not be enough, because the publisher Hindawi discovered this past spring. Although Hindawi doesn’t allow authors suggest reviewers for his or her manuscripts, it made a decision to examine the peer-review records for manuscripts submitted in 2013 and 2014 for possible fraud. The peer-review procedure used in Hindawi’s journals depends mainly on the expertise of its editorial board members and the guest editors of special issues, who are responsible for supervising the review of submitted manuscripts.5 Because the peer reviewers selected by the guest editors were not subject to any sort of independent verification, editors themselves could undermine the process in quite similar way that authors or third-party agencies did elsewhere: by creating fake reviewer identities and addresses that they submitted positive reviews endorsing publication.Because the %ages and prices of change in T-cell populations varies among disease stages, we also analyzed T-cell counts through the asymptomatic stage of infection . As found in the analysis of the entire data set, the price of decline in CD4+ T-cell %ages was equivalent among individuals with HIV-1 infection only and the ones with dual infections, with an average decline of 0.8 percent each year . The CD4+ T-cell %age at the extrapolated level at seroconversion was considerably higher with dual an infection than with HIV-1 infection only .